A team of scientists has helped crack one of the secrets of a plant used as the traditional Chinese medicine. The research led by Professor Cathie Martin of the John Innes Centre revealed how a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine produces compounds which may help to treat cancer and liver diseases, according to The Hindustan Times.
The Chinese skullcap, Scutellaria baicalensis, otherwise known in Chinese medicine as Huang-Qin, is traditionally used as a treatment for fever, liver and lung complaints.
Previous research on cells cultured in the lab has shown that certain compounds called flavones, found in the roots of this plant, not only have beneficial anti-viral and anti-oxidant effects, but they can also kill human cancers while leaving healthy cells untouched. In live animal models, these flavones have also halted tumour growth, offering hope that they may one day lead to effective cancer treatments, or even cures.
As a group of compounds, the flavones are relatively well understood. But the beneficial flavones found in Huang-Qin roots, such as wogonin and baicalin, are different: a missing -OH (hydroxyl) group in their chemical structure left scientists scratching their heads as to how they were made in the plant.
Lead author Cathie Martin explained that many flavones are synthesised using a compound called naringenin as a building block. But naringenin has this -OH group attached to it, and there is no known enzyme that will remove it to produce the flavones we find in Huang-Qin roots.
Working in collaboration with Chinese scientists, Cathie and her team explored the possibility that Huang-Qin’s root-specific flavones (RSFs) were made via a different biochemical pathway. Step-by-step, the scientists unravelled the mechanism involving new enzymes that make RSFs using a different building block called chrysin.
“We believe that this biosynthetic pathway has evolved relatively recently in Scutellaria roots, diverging from the classical pathway that produces flavones in leaves and flowers, specifically to produce chrysin and its derived flavones,” said Martin. The study is published in Science Advances.